Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Representation of women in media Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Representation of women in media - Research Paper Example Most actresses, cover models and ballet dancers (Slater & Tiggemann) weigh less than the average weight of a woman since the media advocates for slender bodies. Women and young girls use diet pills to lose weight (Moffitt & Szymanski, 2011). Pictures describe many things; they display beauty, send a message or simply advertise something. Photographs are a form of communication between the photographer and the audience. Marketers use photographs to advertise their products. People use photos to store information as a form of pictorial memory (Benson & Allen, 2009). Finally, photography can be implemented as a career, which a photographer sells the photos to make money or as a passion. On the other hand, photo manipulation involves altering a photo through a computer in order to improve its look or beauty. Journalists use photo manipulation for resizing photos and cropping images. Secondly, it is also used to restore the structure of a damaged photograph. Thirdly, web designers use it for designing web layouts and navigation tools. It can be used to construct an intact website. Finally, photo shopping is a powerful animation

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Ap World Compare and Contrast Essay Example for Free

Ap World Compare and Contrast Essay During the years 1200 to 1500 CE, two ideal empires, Mali of Sub – Saharan Africa and the Aztecs of the Americas developed into truly influential and powerful empires. Both empires shared a similarity in economy but a different society. The Mali and Aztecs both traded, but while Mali traded with Islamic regions developing Islamic institutions within its borders, the Aztecs traded locally consequently not being influenced by outside cultures. Both Empires differed in society in which women in Mali tended to have more rights than women in an Aztec society whom they had little to no role in their society. Also social structure of both societies varied in which Mali had extended families and clans serve as the main foundation of their social structure while Aztec society was mainly a hierarchy with military elite as their main source of authority. The Mali Empire and the Aztec Empire rose in different locations thus they had different ways of approaching different aspects of their culture but both empires still shared some key aspects also. The Mali Empire and the Aztec Empire both benefited and flourished from trade. The Mali Empire came very much in contact with Islamic based regions when they traded items such as gold, ivory, and slaves. Trade for Mali had cultural implications because it facilitated the introduction of Islam to the region. Aztecs traded with nearby people of their society and traded textiles, rabbit – fur blankets, embroidered clothes, jewelry, and obsidian knifes. Aztec society did not experience an introduction of new cultural ideas because they traded only locally. Trading for both society stimulated agricultural growth and for the Mali empire also stimulated introduction to Islam. Women roles in Mali and Aztec society were very much different. Women in the Mali Empire generally had more opportunities open to them than did their counterparts in other lands did. Women influenced public affairs and even participated actively in both local and long distance trade. While the women of the Mali Empire enjoyed more rights, the women of Aztec society experienced little to no rights. Women of Aztec society played almost no role in the political affairs of a society. Women were not able to inherit property or hold high officials as the women of the Mali were able to do. Extended families and clans served as the main foundation of social and economic organization in Mali society. The male heads of the families governed the village and organized the work of their own groups. The aspect of family was well intertwined with authority. Thus most villagers functioned in society firsts as members of a family or a clan. Although families were the main foundation of the social classes in Mali society, in Aztec it was much different. Aztec society was rigidly hierarchical, with public honors and rewards going to the military elite. The military elite were the main authority of social organization in the Aztec society. As a result families were the main aspect of social structure in Mali society while military elites were the main social aspect in Aztec society. Therefore, both Mali and Aztec Empires benefited from trade but they received different responses from it. Mali was introduced to Islam from trade because of trading to other societies. Aztecs did not experience any change in culture because they traded locally. Women roles were different in both societies, women of Mali enjoyed more rights in comparison to the women of Aztec society whom received little to no rights. The social structure of Mali was generally a more family based authority while Aztec society was of a military elite social structure. Although both empires were from different parts of the world they both were successful in becoming significant and influential empires.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Writing Techniques in Art Spiegelmans Maus and Kurt Vonneguts Slaught

Writing Techniques in Art Spiegelman's Maus and Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse Five BAM! ZONK! POW! ZAP! What images do these words bring to mind? For many people, they illicit scenes of Batman and his sidekick Robin, fighting their way through a legion of bad guys while arriving only seconds after their arch-villain has escaped. From these short, succinct, nonsense words, images of battles are painted over a much larger canvas; the delicate balance and constant struggle between good and evil is illustrated in black and white terms. Unlike comics or television, life does not fit within these binary opposites. In a war there are good guys, bad guys, and everything imaginable in-between. ZONK! POW! Did a bad guy get thrown into a pile of crates or did our hero get knocked out from behind? These simple words are not enough for us to distinguish the difference between good and bad or right and wrong. At the same time, no artist or writer or illustrator could ever hope to present a situation in its entirety. How would a sentence like, ‘the hero, who although he treats his wife in a derogatory manner, punched a bad guy to save a damsel in distress’ serve as a gauge of morals or justice? It is not the creator’s job to portray an entire event, but rather, to present the event in a way that the audience can understand and draw their own conclusions from. In Maus, Art Spiegelman does not make any apologies about what he includes or leaves out from his story. Maus is not meant to be a story that encompasses World War II or the Holocaust, but rather, a story about the life of his father, Vladek Spiegelman: I still want to draw the book about you†¦/The one I used to talk to you about†¦/About your life in Po... ... but rather, that it was humanity itself which suffered. It is interesting that we cannot definitively say that either Maus or Slaughterhouse Five was intended to be an anti-war book. For an author to have taken a side would have opened their book to more criticism and opposition than they already harbor. Instead, both Vonnegut and Spiegelman chose to mask their true meaning behind subtle hints and allusions. We cannot put either book into the black or white category of pro or anti-war. Even Vonnegut by his own admission states that, â€Å"all I would have to do would be to report what I had seen† (Vonnegut 2). Maus and Slaughterhouse Five are not about proving a point or pushing an agenda. Instead, they present the absolutes of good and evil in a simple and concise way so that we may be able to distinguish all of the many gradients that lie in-between.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Legislation for Students in Special Education Programs

Public jurisprudence 94-142 Part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act ( 1975 ) states that a free and appropriate public instruction must be provided for all kids with disablements in the United States ( those up to 5 old ages old may be excluded in some provinces ) . ( Hardman, & A ; Drew, 2008 ) In 1974 amendments to ESEA and EHA were passed ( Public jurisprudence 93-380 ) in order to increase fiscal aid to provinces to supply services to kids with disablements. This jurisprudence besides included linguistic communication that informed school territories that federal assistance for plans for pupils with disablements would be dependent on provinces developing programs for adequate services for kids with disablements. Finally, in 1975, The Landmark Education of All Handicapped Children Act ( EHA ) ; Public Law 94-124 ) was passed. This jurisprudence requires that all pupils have entree to liberate and allow public instruction that is provided in the least restrictive environment. Under Public Law 94-142, schools were required to supply service merely for kids of school age. But In 1986, public jurisprudence 99-457 was passed. This jurisprudence mandated particular instruction services for kids ages 3-5 and provided fiscal inducements to provinces to supply services for kids ag es birth to 3. I can merely conceive of the troubles that schools had to face before PublicA jurisprudence 94-142 was passed. But even after 1975 kids with disablements who were non yet in schools ( ages 3-5 ) had no rights that support their educational demands either. It took eleven old ages for the jurisprudence to be revised. Hardman, M, & A ; Drew, C. ( 2008 ) . Human exceptionality scool, community and household. Boston: Houghton Mifflin CompanyThe American with Disabilities Act ( ADA )Persons with disablements education Act ( IDEA )Agencies for Students in Particular EducationII. Students with Learning DisabilitiesEmotional/behavioral Disorders ( EBD )Intellectual disablementCommunication upsetsPhysical disablementsIII. The Individualized Education plan ( IEP )The intent of IEPWho is involved?Developing the individualised instruction plan Developmentally appropriate pattern is instructional attack that uses course of study and larning environments consistent with the kid ‘s development degree. It uses more child-initiated acquisition by promoting kids to research their involvements through drama. It besides encourages household engagement. Age appropriate arrangement on the other manus is the arrangement of pick for all pupils with or without particular demands that are within chronologically age appropriate regular schoolrooms. Students with disabilities have the same environment as non-handicapped equals of similar age in order to better the quality of interactions in those environments. Inclusive preschool schoolrooms are designed to run into the demands of each kid. Classrooms are staffed by extremely trained professionals in both kid attention and particular instruction. In add-on, the schoolroom physical environment supports all of the users. The kids have all of their day-to-day activities together and th e kids are seen as persons and it is recognized that all kids are on a continuum of development. I believe the â€Å" Best Plan † depends upon the specific demands of the kid. Developmentally appropriate course of study should supply for all countries of a kid ‘s development ; physical, emotional, societal, lingual, and cognitive.The course of study should besides construct upon what kids already know and are able to make to consolidate their acquisition and to further their acquisition of new constructs and accomplishments. Integrated scenes have, in fact, been found to bring forth higher proportions, rates, and degrees of societal, cognitive, and lingual accomplishments in kids with disablements than unintegrated scenes. IV. Teacher ‘s Roles in the Classroom Particular instruction instructors compile, organize and keep good accurate records on each pupil and work straight with the pupil ‘s parents to guarantee that they are familiar with what is being taught. Since the particular instruction instructor needs to cognize whom to depend on for role- specific advice, he or she has the duty to organize the pupil ‘s individualised instruction plan by maintaining the line of communicating unfastened with each squad member. The General instruction instructor ‘s function is critical ; he or she provides support for pupils by repeating or lucubrating on the pupil ‘s verbal parts. The instructor assesses the general course of study and aids in finding appropriate positive behavioural intercessions and schemes for the pupil and provides services and plans alterations. Professionals who collaborate trust one another but coaction and audience will work in a school if, and merely if, the people involved are prepared for the func tions. Understand their specific functions, and know the ends for the procedure Working with Children with Special Needs Intensive instructions Adaptive instructions Inclusive instruction VII. Passage to adult life Passage Servicess are designed to be within a results-oriented procedure, that is focused on bettering the academic and functional accomplishment of the kid with a disablement to ease the kid ‘s motion from school to post-school activities, including post-secondary instruction, vocational instruction, integrated employment ( including supported employment ) , go oning and big instruction, grownup services, independent life, or community engagement. It is based on the single kid ‘s demands, taking into history the kid ‘s strengths, penchants, and involvements. The jurisprudence is really clear in saying that every effort must be made to guarantee that pupils take part meaningfully in their ain passage planning. IDEA ordinances require schools to affect the pupil in the planning procedure to the maximal extent possible, every bit good as to guarantee that the pupil ‘s penchants and involvements are considered in composing the ends and aims. The passage from school to adult life is a complex and dynamic procedure. Passage planning should stop with the transportation of support from the school to an grownup service bureau, entree to postsecondary instruction, or life as an independent grownup. ( Hardman, Drew, & A ; Egan, 2008 ) Planing for pupil ‘s future requires the position of multiple people who are vested in the pupil ‘s life. IDEA 2004 requires that the planning squad include the parents ; at least one general instruction instructor ; the particular pedagogue who works with the pupil ; a representative of the school territory ; the school must besides ask for the pupil to go to the IEP/transition squad meeting and help the pupils in making his or her ends. What chances are available for pupils with disablements after they complete secondary school? Teachers, parents, households, and schools should go on to look for available community resources to assist pupils with disablements become more independent and passage from high school to the community. Many times there are authorities funded bureaus that have plans and services available for persons with transitional barriers. One of the bureaus that found to be helpful is The Job Accommodation Network ( JAN ) . It has an international toll-free consulting service that provides information about occupation adjustments and the employability of people with disablements. JAN besides provides information sing the Americans with Disabilities Act ( ADA ) . Another bureau is The National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth ( NCWD-Y ) . It offers proficient aid plans to assist the work force development community with issues that affect the employment of young person with disableme nts. The NCWD-Y besides seeks the aid of experts in disablement, instruction, employment and work force development issues to guarantee that young person with disablements are provide full entree to high quality services. Institutions of higher acquisition besides have different chances on their campuses for pupils with disablements. Postsecondary academies are one-day conferences-type events for high school juniors and seniors with a broad scope of disablements. Parents, instructors, passage specializers, and other high school staff are besides encouraged to go to. To to the full fix for the passage from school, pupils and parents must be educated about critical constituents of grownup services systems ; Self finding and societal accomplishments besides play a critical function in the successful passage from school to adult life. Students with disablements in the secondary school old ages need entree to societal activities in order to be successful in the community and the workplace. Competence in utilizing societal accomplishments will take to positive perceptual experiences of individuals with disablements in extended community scenes such as postsecondary instruction.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Assassination Of John F. Kennedy - 1500 Words

On November 23, 1963, three shots were fired at President John F. Kennedy’s limousine in Dallas, Texas. The first shot went through the president’s neck, the second was the fatal shot that would ultimately end Kennedy’s life. There is a lot of speculation about what really took place in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Many people believe that Lee Harvey Oswald worked alone, but there are many people across the nation who think differently. Many theories can both support and disprove that Lee Harvey Oswald worked as a lone wolf in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The official report by the government in the JFK assassination was that Lee Harvey Oswald worked alone on the twenty-third of November in 1963. The day began with the president walking outside of the Texas Hotel where he was staying the night before to give a speech to the several people waiting for him. This morning would help President Kennedy determine how the campaign of Texas would go. Onl y a month before, an ambassador from the United Nations was attacked over political disputes. Though tension was high in Texas, he was greeted by the crowd with cheering and clapping. It was a very warm feeling for Kennedy. There was a light rain in the morning, but as the rain came to a stop, the decision was made to take the protective bubble off the President’s limousine; the ten mile route to the President’s luncheon then began later in the day. At twelve thirty, the President’s limousine turned into DealeyShow MoreRelatedThe Assassination Of John F. Kennedy982 Words   |  4 Pages O’Reilly and Dugard’s book, Killing Kennedy, is about the events leading to President John F. Kennedy being shot, as well as what happened after the assassination. This book also describes the rise and fall of John F. Kennedy. The authors also wrote about the Cold War, Kennedy dealing with communism, and threats of crime. January of 1961, the cold war was growing stronger and Kennedy was struggling with communism. During all of this happening, he was learning what it meant to be a president. HeRead MoreThe Assassination Of John F. Kennedy1620 Words   |  7 Pages Ever since the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963, there has been controversy over whether the true gunman was held accountable. The United States Government claimed that it was an easy, open and closed case. They found Lee Harvey Oswald, close to ground zero, with a freshly fired riffle, immediately after JFK was shot. Contrary to the governments report, skeptics argue a vast scope of conspiracies to shed light on what they believe happened that day; ideas ranging from magic bullets, multipleRead MoreThe Kennedy Assassinations By John F. Kennedy Essay1486 Words   |  6 Pages Decades later, the Kennedy assassinations and surrounding mysteries continue holding public interest. Although their notoriety as charismatic leaders is a significant contribution, other factors regarding societal psychology deserve consideration whilst exploring this phenomenon. With these events occurring during a time that allows living witnesses, modern accessible evidence, various media covera ge, and visible modern impact, the mysterious Kennedy assassinations have the capacity to encourageRead MoreJohn F. Kennedy Assassination1618 Words   |  7 PagesJohn F. Kennedy Assassination Was John F. Kennedy’s assassination a single shooter or was it a conspiracy? Since November 22, 1963 people around the world have wondered who it was that shot President Kennedy, and what for. So many questions have formed around this event, not just about who the shooter was, but also questions like what might the world have been like today if the shooting didn’t happen? The Kennedy assassination has been a mystery for many years. A lot of people hear about the differentRead MoreAssassination Of John F. Kennedy1002 Words   |  5 PagesThe Assassination of John F. Kennedy â€Å"Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s future. And we are all mortal.† President Kennedy stated in his commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. John F. Kennedy was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 to his assassination in November 1963. There are numerous conspiracy theories involving Kennedy’s assassinationRead MoreAssassination of John F. Kennedy931 Words   |  4 PagesThe John F. Kennedy assassination is believed to be one of the most controversial and debated topics in American History. JFK was one of the most beloved presidents of our time. Other assassinations of presidents didn’t have as many Conspiracy theories compared to the JFK assassination on November 22nd, 1963. Some of the theories include a Government cover-up, Mafia influence, and Cuban President Fidel Castro (Stern). T he assassination of John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, raised many questions thatRead MoreThe Assassination Of John F. Kennedy Essay967 Words   |  4 PagesThe book I chose to read is The Assassination of John F. Kennedy by Lauren Spencer. It was published in 2002 by The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. It contains 64 pages. This book not only provides information on the killing of President Kennedy, but also information on his life, the arrested murderer s life, and more interesting background information and details. This books main objective is to go deeper into the case of John F. Kennedy s assassination, to discuss personal information about suspectsRead MoreAssassination of John F Kennedy1119 Words   |  5 Pagessixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository Building. However, did Lee Harvey Oswald, a crazy lunatic act alone in the assassination of President Kennedy. Both first – hand knowledge and visual evidence allows people to re – examine the events of this day and prove that there were other gunmen involved in the bombardment of our youngest elected president. John F. Kennedy was depicted as a nationwide hero to many Catholics living in the U.S. during the early 1960’s. He was idolized by severalRead MoreThe Assassination Of John F. Kennedy1626 Words   |  7 PagesThe Assassination of John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on November 22, 1963 at 12:30 p.m Central Standard Time in Dallas, Texas while riding in a motorcade in Dealey Plaza.[1] Kennedy was fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald while he was riding with his wife, Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally s wife, Nellie, in a presidential motorcade. A ten-month investigation by the Warren Commission from November 1963 to September 1964Read MoreThe John F. Kennedy Assassination1803 Words   |  8 PagesU.S. History 102 Research Project The John F. Kennedy Assassination Cody D. Bindley History 102: 1865 to Present Instructor Sumner February 7, 2016 INTRODUCTION On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was attending a parade in Dallas, Texas. During this parade President Kennedy was traveling in a 1961 convertible Lincoln Continental limousine with the top down. President Kennedy was traveling in the third row passenger side seat of the vehicle, seated to his left was

Thursday, December 26, 2019

A Comparison of Feminist Writings - 614 Words

Nora Helmer in Henrik Ibsens â€Å"A Dolls House† And Mrs. Mallard in Kate Chopins â€Å"The Story of an Hour† find themselves facing very different dilemmas, yet both women faced their respective challenge in a way that went against the social norm for women in their time period, this was done by these pioneering writers to show the oppression faced by women who were trapped in their marriages during their respective time periods. Nora and Louise are both faced with problems in their lives and both women face those problems in a way that is not accepted by society as normal behavior for a woman. Nora and Torvalds first year of marriage was not an easy one. Nora finds out that Torvald is ill. He had been working day and night to try and provide for his new family. In order for him to get better he needs to move south. Nora is willing to do anything in order to save her husband. She decides to take a loan in order to afford the life saving trip. (Ibsen) Women were not to have anything to do with the household finances. She did this behind Torvald’s back and forged her dead father’s signature. Mrs. Helmer went against the â€Å"rules† that woman were supposed to abide by in order to save her husband. Mrs. Mallard faced a different kind of problem. She was faced with the death of her husband. For Mrs. Mallard this was the beginning of her real life. Victoria Hicks states that â€Å"women were confined to the private sphere of the home and were often denied participation in the public.†(Hicks)Show MoreRelatedEveryday Use By Alice Walker1102 Words   |  5 Pagesexpressions and strength. Advertised in the general outlines of the plot, both literary themes talks of a quest for freedom, the characters identity and self-expression. Adrienne Rich â€Å"Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers† Alice Walker â€Å"Everyday Use† Comparison Paper Analyzing the two types of literature forms, a poem and a short story the two authors grew up different, with different surroundings, and have written stories in different times of history when men controlled and women were expected to becomeRead MoreFeminism : The Purest Form Is Defined As The Belief That Men And Women Are Equal948 Words   |  4 Pagesare equal in all aspects of life- socially, economically, and politically. As times have evolved, society has come to recognize the feminist movement as a credible and truthfully real social issue. Yet, women are still valued less than men. Women are still portrayed in a light that does not shine as a bright as a man’s. In the late 19th century, the term â€Å"feminist† became a widely known term due to the high demand of woman’s rights not only in the United States but as well as other countries suchRead MoreAnalysis Of Virginie Despentes ( 1969 )1489 Words   |  6 PagesVirginie Despentes (1969), a French w riter, novelist, and filmmaker who was born in Paris, whom was most famously known as the author for the King Kong Theory. A theory which merged together her autobiography and the feminist theory, it also acts as a backdrop to the famous novel Baise-Moi (2000) which was then made into a movie. The title can be translated in English as ‘Fuck me’. Baise Moi shocked French audiences with its graphic rape scenes, murder plots and real sex scenes which entail nudityRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1142 Words   |  5 PagesPride and Prejudice: Feminist Origins Jane Austen wrote Pride and Prejudice in 1813, and it is seen as an important novel. Jane Austen grew up in a patriarchal society, with a father being a clergyman. Austen went against the normal for girls and rejected the man that proposed to her. She then began to write in a woman’s perspective. By using the feminist lens to analyze Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, readers can realize how Austen used the characters in her novel to portray feminism, which atRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald877 Words   |  4 Pagesmatter their gender or race. This paper will look into two cultural texts from different time periods and analyse them through a feminist perspective, discussing the producers’ use of women in the works and feminist or anti-feminist ideas. This paper will first look at the novel The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald, F, S, 1925), analysing Fitzgerald’s use of gender roles and feminist ideals. A product of its time, The Great Gatsby has female characters in secondary roles, but surprisingly doesn’t completelyRead MoreAnalysis Of Demarginalizing The Intersection Of Race And Sex849 Words   |  4 Pages Similar to the author Kimberle Crenshaw, the author of â€Å"Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics,† I would like to start my critical review essay by mentioning the Black feminist studies book entitled â€Å"All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave.† Having this idea of problematic predisposition to treat race and gender as mutually exclusive entities in mind, IRead MoreThe World of Fiction666 Words   |  3 Pagesspecializes in psychological description  an d reveals his characters’ inner conflict. Fiction can use various symbols to imply real things happened in the world. Hemingway’s short story--- Hills like White Elephants fully reflects his unique and classic writing style. The story seems simple, but actually artful. Hemingway captures the essence of the plain dialogue of usual life, so a reader may be under an illusion that he was present at the site of the story. And he adds sentiment into concise languageRead MoreA Student Of The College Of Architecture Planning Landscape Architecture Essay1560 Words   |  7 Pagesthe events that are being promoted. The first piece of advertisement is a flyer for a session about traditional Tucson crafts with a contemporary design. Lastly, I will investigate a flyer about women in sustainability and feminist organizations. To fully understand this writing genre, I will look for patterns in the strategies being used, the design of each flyer and the choices each designer made to make their product more appealing. ArandaLasch (See figure 1) The first handout is about architectsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Hunger Games By Scott Westerfeld1399 Words   |  6 PagesFreedom of choice, the transference of power away from and to the oppressed, and rebellion against societal norms: these are some of the many ingredients of a book that hailed a new approach toward writing, trailblazing a whole subgenre of fictitious works. This book, a book which will stand the test of time, embodies the female struggle in an oppressive society. This book, Scott Westerfeld’s Uglies, will survive as it became a beacon in the new style of young adult dystopian novels with female protagonistsRead MoreThroughout The History Of The Women’S Rights Initiative,989 Words   |  4 Pageswith the patriarchy in the context of her writing career. She tries to encourage other women to similarly expand their mindset and reject the ingrained misogynistic limitations of society by masterfully manipulating rhetoric to temper her argument w ithout sacrificing her overall message. She utilizes specific settings and comparisons within her metaphors to assert her point without seeming radical, enabling her to appeal to both misogynists and feminists. There are two specific metaphors Woolf

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Aria of War Justifications for the Pursuit of...

Introduction The end of the Cold War and attacks of 9/11 dramatically altered the landscape of United States national security endeavors. Gone was the singular, nearly tactile threat as presented by a major superpower, and in its place was the â€Å"amorphous nature of a terrorist opponent,† (Snow, 2014, p. 112). This novel threat defied easy definition or identification, and attacked in ways to which the U.S. had grown unaccustomed. Phrases like â€Å"asymmetrical warfare† and â€Å"war on terror† were used liberally by an executive branch wholly unprepared for mitigating such a threat, and exploited to justify any number of means to achieve an end that as yet remains elusive. With the threat now subsiding, and certain means of statecraft and defense†¦show more content†¦Even this is determined to be an â€Å"unprecedented war,† do the means of operating outside international law and norms justify the ends? The advantage of selective application of the Convention lies in the ability for an administration to be able to justify certain activities that otherwise would be unlawful. Colin Powell attempted point out this inconsistency in his appeal to various executive branch leadership by stating, â€Å"The United States and international community have consistently held Afghanistan to its treaty obligations and identified it as a party to the Geneva Conventions† (Caseldine-Bracht, 2006, p. 77). Insinuations of hypocrisy aside, the use of prisons outside the United States failed to place the use of harsh interrogation techniques beyond American culpability (Lowenthal, 2012, p. 286). These extraterritorial arrests have raised serious ethical and legal issues for intelligence officers and policymakers, as well as created discomfort with allies. In the end, the short-term advantage of circumventing international laws has resulted in the very real long-term repercussions of eroding U.S. credibility when attempting to intervene in states that abuse human rights. The Necessity of SIGINT vs Protection of Privacy The nature of terrorist threat combined with technologies that facilitate globalization resulted in both the necessity as well as the capacity to wage war and conduct intelligence operations in a new